While each grouper species has a specific suite of traits—and individuals their own idiosyncrasies--there are a number of traits that they all share. Groupers, like many reef fish, spawn offshore on shelf and shelf-edge reefs. Their pelagic larvae remain the open ocean for 40-60 days before reaching inshore nursery grounds. Once there, they transform into small juveniles, and remain in their nursery habitat for periods that vary from 5-6 months (Gag) to 5 to 6 years (Red Grouper & Goliath Grouper). They then move offshore to join adult populations. As they move from habitat to habitat, each life stage has very different requirements for being successful, occupying different niches relative to their size and their position in a food web, whether they eat plankton, bottom-dwelling crustaceans, or other fish.
As an overlay on this life cycle are life histories and behaviors that they also share. They are slow to mature and have complex social systems that provide cues for sex change. They also exhibit a high degree of site fidelity within their home ranges and to their spawning aggregation sites where they are easy to capture, particularly with the remarkable improvements in navigational gear that allows targeting very discrete locales.
Sex change in groupers is a one-way street, from female to male. For Gag (Mycteroperca microlepis)-- one of the more important species fished in the eastern Gulf of Mexico—the period in which sex change is initiated is brief, occurring only during the late winter or early spring. At other times, males and females are separated, with males staying offshore on spawning sites while females move to shallower water. All of the reproduction in the population takes place in the brief time the sexes co-occur. So do all the cues for sex change. If there are two few males, then dominant females will change sex so that by the following spawning season, more males are available.
This combination of traits make them highly vulnerable to exploitation and habitat loss. There are currently no management plans in effect to adequately protect either their social structure or their nursery habitat. While marine reserves have proved an effective tool for protecting offshore spawning grounds, they have not been applied to nursery habitat which remains vulnerable to the effects of eutrophication, development, and industrial contamination.